There are 555 Sonatas for piano (or harpsichord) by Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) and there are literally scores of recordings of these pithy little essays that lie poised between the style of the late baroque and early classical. I first heard this composer’s work in the early 1970s in the wonderful synthesizer transcriptions by Wendy Carlos. Since then I have found this composer’s work to move in and out of my life, just randomly. Sometimes I don’t hear his music or even hear about him for months, perhaps years. But then he pops up somehow. Either I find a compelling YouTube performance on a period harpsichord or some algorithm sends me a video of Horowitz playing one or two of the sonatas.
They are deceptively simple in sound but are quite difficult to perform. To make matters more unnecessarily complex there are no less than four separate numbers assigned to each sonata by musician scholars. The first numbering was the Cz number by the celebrated pianist/composer Carl Czerny. The second (from about 1906) is the L for Alessandro Longo. Famed harpsichordist, pianist, and musicologist Ralph Kirpatrick did his edition in 1953 giving us the K numbering. And finally another scholar named Georgio Pestelli gave us, you guessed it, a P numbering system.
One thing is pretty clear from all this fussy scholarship, that Scarlatti’s music continues to mean a great deal and is played in transcriptions probably for every imaginable grouping. There are purist arguments as to why they should only always be played on a harpsichord and wonderfully scholarly treatises on the use of the pedal when playing these pieces on the modern piano.
Lucas Debargue (from his website)
So if you want to get into Scarlatti where do you start? I would suggest that here is a great place. This young fine artist Lucas Debargue (1990- ), a French pianist, has chosen 52 (yes, of 555) and plays them beautifully on the piano. These 4 CDs will do a fine job of filling that annoying collector’s gap when you suddenly realized you had no Scarlatti. In fact you might find yourself so pleased as to not need any other versions of these works.
If you already have the complete Scott Ross collection of the sonatas or are just getting to know these little gems this is a great set. It is a superior musician of the generation now rising to their fame as legitimized interpreters of these lovely and challenging works.
I had contemplated maybe providing a list of which sonatas are included here (they’re not even listed on the back of the box, you have to read the liner notes) but I decided that ultimately it doesn’t matter unless you are scouring the recorded archives of the world for alternatives to the Wendy Carlos versions. The quality does vary in some of these but any collection of this sized by such a serious artist is bound to have many pleasing to the listener’s ear. The music itself is a fine ride. Let’s see how this new whippersnapper handles it. You won’t be disappointed.
Hannah Lash‘s name began appearing on my radar about two years ago but this is my first actual encounter with her music. This recent (2011) Harvard graduate’s star seems to be rising quickly and this is a fine place as any to start to get to know her work. New Focus Recordings is a label with good instincts regarding new and important music and this one is typical of their collective acumen.
This release features 4 works. One is for harp (Lash’s instrument) with string quartet and the rest are for string quartet alone. I find it difficult to describe Lash’s work concisely. Like many in her generation she seems to have been exposed most comprehensively to a huge range of styles and techniques and she appears to be selecting judiciously among those to apply those techniques by which she can achieve her compositional goals.
The works include the single movement, Frayed followed by Suite: Remembered and Imagined (in 6 short movements), the single movement Pulse-Space, and the three movement Filigree in Textile which features Lash on harp along with the Jack Quartet. The rather sparse liner notes are by the composer. They may lack detail as to composition date, commissioner, etc. but they do reflect what the composer’s thought processes were with each piece. She is clearly more concerned with conveying her metaphorical ideas than the technical aspects of her work. That is perhaps best left to future musicologists.
Her work is direct, one might even say concise. Using a basically tonal palette, the composer explores a variety of musical and metamusical ideas. These are intimate and interesting works that seem very much to the point. Keep in mind too that this is simply a disc of recent chamber music which gives no idea as to how she handles larger forms. But from the perspective of this album alone her brevity has an almost Webernian quality (not the thorny harmonies or difficult rhythms, just the brief and direct statements she makes with the music here).
The always wonderful Jack Quartet plays in two different configurations here. Tracks 1-8 feature Christopher Otto and Ari Streisfeld, violins; John Pickford Richards, viola; and Kevin McFarland, cello. Tracks 9-11 feature: Austin Wullman and Christopher Otto, violins; John Pickford Richards, viola; Jay Campbell, cello; and Hannah Lash, harp.
As usual with well written new music multiple listens reveal more detail. The music is both interesting at first listen as well as compelling enough to provoke yet another listen. Lash is a rising star who deserves the attention of a new music audience who will learn the subtleties of her musical language. There is great beauty here.
Watching the flowering career of this wonderful violinist has been both a joy and a labor. First, the labor: she is so consumed with projects that it is difficult to keep up sometimes. Second, the joy: All her projects and recordings are fascinating in concept and satisfying to the attuned listener’s ear and to her collaborators.
So it is with this marvelous 2 disc set from Cedille Records (now celebrating its 30th anniversary as one of the finest independent classical labels) which consists of duos with composers. She partners with a variety of up and coming composers in this varied but always interesting collection. These sincere and intimate collaborations exude quantum sparks of creative genius.
Eight composers and nine compositions span two discs demonstrating the Chicago native’s eclectic interests and marvelously collaborative nature. These compositions represent some of the cutting edge nature of her repertory choices as well as the respect earned from these composers.
It begins with The Banquet by Qasim Naqvi who is perhaps best known for his post minimalist acoustic group, Dawn of Midi. Here Naqvi works with a modular synthesizer utilizing that instrument’s quirks to create a sort of drone with minimalistic effects created by his exploitation of those quirks (this could even be classified as a species of glitch). Koh’s part interacts in ways that seem quasi improvisational, doubtless the product of close collaborative efforts.
Next are the lovely Sanctuary Songs by Lisa Bielawa, a fine singer whose solfege singing was for years part of the defining sound of the Philip Glass Ensemble. (Koh masterfully played the solo violin dressed in costume in the title role in the recent revival of Einstein on the Beach.) She comes to us on this disc as a both composer and singer in this lovely cycle.
Bielawa has developed her own compositional voice and this little song cycle is a fine example. Both voice and violin are given challenging roles in exploring this unusual combination of musical timbres. Bielawa compositional voice is entirely her own and her gift for it is evident in this and all that this writer has heard. The work is in three short movements.
Du Yun, whose astounding work was recently reviewed here is represented by her voice and violin duo, Give me back my fingerprints. The link on her name will take the curious listener through this composer’s amazing accomplishments but nothing can prepare the listener for the raw energy that characterizes her work.
Rapidly rising star Tyshawn Sorey uses his amazing ear to create this memoriam for one of his mentors, Muhal Richard Abrams. Sorey uses a glockenspiel as a counterpoint to Koh’s violin in this all too brief memorial piece written on the passing of AACM (a gaggle of brilliant musicians whose grouping reminds this writer of France’s “Le Six”, the “Russian Five”, and the early twentieth century “American Five”) founding member, a truly great composer, collaborator, and performer. The AACM was founded in Chicago.
I had the pleasure of meeting the genial and quick minded Sorey at OM 17. The link to my blog review is provided for the curious listener. The concert took place in 2012. Here is the shortcut to the Other Minds archival page. Sorey provides no liner notes perhaps because he has succeeded in saying everything he wanted to say in the music (Koh seems quite appropriately tuned in here.
Nina Young‘s Sun Propeller involves the composer on electronics which interact to some degree with the solo acoustic instrument to extend the range of what the audience hears from the violin. The title refers to the rays of sun one sees when the sun is behind a cloud and the sunbeams radiate out in glorious fashion. This serves as a metaphor for the process involved in the composition. But not to worry, the complexity does not hide the beauty of the music itself.
As if all the preceding weren’t enough there is a second disc continuing this collaboration. First up is another name new to this writer, Wang Lu . This Chinese American composer uses electronics alongside acoustic instruments in much of her work. Her digital sampling reflects the eclectic nature of her world comprising everything from Korean pop to Chinese opera and a host of environmental sounds. This piece also contains an opportunity for the composer to do some free improvisation as well as provide accompaniment to Koh’s violin part. It is a dizzying and mind manifesting experience.
Next up is Vijay Iyer. Iyer is perhaps best known as a jazz pianist and, as such, he is a fine example but his south Asian heritage doubtless has had an influence on him musically though that is but one aspect of his work. The American born Iyer, like many of his generation, mine their and our collective heritages as needed for inspiration. The present composition, “Diamond” also draws from his rich cultural background as it refers to the Buddhist Diamond Sutra and utilizes the structure of that religious parable to create the piece. It is probably the most conventional sounding work here but that tells the listener little given the wide ranging eclecticism. It is a piece which gives homage to jazz filtered through the experience and the person that is Vijay Iyer and, in this case, shared with the violinist.
The last composer is Missy Mazzoli, an established American composer. She is represented by two works, “A Thousand Tongues” and (the now Grammy nominated) “Vespers”. The composer provides accompaniment with piano and electronics. The first piece has more the ambiance of a pop song though an avant garde one. The last piece, the Vespers, feels deeper and more haunting. Both provide more than adequate writing to keep soloist Koh both busy and happy.
Indeed this album will keep the astute listener happy for its musical content, its progressive interest in new music, its wonderful soloist and beautiful sound.
This is a helluva introduction to the wide ranging talents of violinist Margaret Batjer, currently the concert master of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra. OMG, why doesn’t this woman have her own web page? Well this BIS recording is a sort of, “here’s what I can do across 300+ year of repertoire”. BIS is a Swedish based record label with a well earned reputation both for quality sound recording as well as intelligent choice of repertoire. This recording succeeds on both counts.
Batjer opens with a new work by American composer Pierre Jalbert (1967- ) whose star is rising steadily on the reputation of his intense and engaging music. This is the longest work on the disc and perhaps the most challenging technically. It is a marvelous violin concerto of a modern but quite accessible composer. Jalbert’s fantastic Piano Quintet was reviewed here.
She follows this with a classic of the western canon, Bach’s A minor concerto, then an arrangement for violin and string orchestra with percussion of Arvo Pärt’s “Fratres” (it exists in an arrangement for nearly any ensemble one could imagine), a classic of so called “holy minimalism”.
And she concludes her program with a longer piece (his second violin concerto) by another holy minimalist, Peteris Vasks (1946- ), a composer who also needs a web page. His Lonely Angel (2006) was written for Gidon Kremer and follows in the tradition of meditative consonance that characterizes the holy minimalist genre.
She plays with her familiar colleagues in the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra under conductor Jeffrey Kahane in an arrestingly beautiful recording of music spanning nearly 300 years. The combination of technical skills and interpretive skills (by orchestra and soloist) along with a wonderful sound recording make this a welcome debut for this soloist and leaves this writer wanting to hear more from her and this wonderful little orchestra.
Strictly speaking this is a recording a a film score suite and a cantata derived from a film score but these are perhaps among the finest examples of film score music. The earliest piece here is actually Prokofiev’s first commission, the 1934 Lieutenant Kije. This film (released in the US under the title of “The Czar Sleeps”) is a satire/comedy film based on a novella. The score is by itself very tuneful and entertaining and deserves to be heard more often.
The larger work here, Alexander Nevsky (1938), the cantata extracted one year later from the film score by the composer is of course the score to one of the early masterpieces of cinema. The film is the slightly fictionalized account of the reign and military prowess of one Alexander Nevsky (1200-1263). It is without doubt one of the most successful pairings of image and sound at its time. One need only listen to a snippet of John Williams’ score for the battle on the ice planet in the Star Wars series to hear the homage he gives to this score.
Both works here receive a very fine performance and recording by the Utah Symphony conducted by Thierry Fischer. He is assisted by the Utah Symphony Chorus, the University of Utah A Capella Choir, and the University of Utah Chamber Choir under the direction of Barlow Bradford as well as soloist, mezzo soprano Alisa Koslova. Fischer’s tenure would seem to be the surest and most successful since that of the much lauded and beloved Maurice Abravanel. In addition we have here a recording by the reliably high quality Reference Recordings label.
Many collectors will already have a recording of Alexander Nevsky but this performance and recording, along with the inclusion of the earlier film score make this a marvelous addition to any library. And if you have one of those fabulous sound systems you will hear the intricate detail of the recording and feel those bass drum thumps most viscerally. This is an exciting release of exceptional quality on all fronts.
Rachel Barton-Pine is one of the finest and most interesting performers working today. Her unique look at the performing repertoire for her instrument continues to be one of the most salient features of her artistry. Certainly her interpretive abilities are foremost but her choices of neglected repertoire make any release of her recordings a reason to pay close attention.
In the past she has recorded many a neglected piece based on her interest in the music. She has featured black composers from the baroque to the present and has managed to resurrect unjustly neglected concerti from composers of pretty much every racial and national description. Here she features two lovely seldom heard concertos. The Dvorak concerto from 1789 and the Khachaturian concerto from 1941. Both are major works and a challenge to the soloist and both fit pretty much into the late romantic genre (arguably that would be “post romantic” for the Khachaturian).
The present recording is released on the Avie label which is a progressive independent label which itself boasts an impressive selection of musical works in very fine performances. This disc is a fine example of the work they do and is a great selection for the listener’s library. These two concertos were popular in their day but have not seen inclusion in live performances or recordings as much as other romantic concertos. One could speculate endlessly on why this is so or one could simply celebrate the fact that we are getting to hear them in these fine and definitive recordings.
The Dvorak from 1879 is as tuneful and entertaining as any of its contemporaries (Bruch, Tchaikovsky, Brahms, etc) but for whatever reason has not received as much attention. Regardless of why this is so I would recommend just listening and drawing your own conclusions. This three movement work is as challenging technically and as entertaining a concerto as any currently in regular performance. This work is one of the finest examples of the high romanticism of the late 19th century and one hope this recording will help cement the piece into a more frequent visitor to both concert halls and recordings.
The Khachaturian (from 1940) began its life during the throes of the WWII under the oppressive political scrutiny of Josef Stalin and his regime. Khachaturian, who is now recognized quite properly as an Armenian composer, was then subsumed into the mix of the vast gaggle of countries and cultures under the rubric of the USSR. And while this is not particularly or obviously ethnic as other music from this region it is important to know that the composer’s identity was “Russian” by default and not by choice. Regardless of those considerations one must be grateful for the fact that the oppressive regime was able to recognize a quality work (also one in three movements) and give it the “Stalin prize”. Doubtless there are influences gleaned from the composer’s efforts to not offend the conservative tastes of the ruling elite but the bottom line here is that we have a true masterpiece of the concerto genre and one which deserves serious attention and continued performances.
The useful liner notes are by the soloist, a fact which spotlights her musicological interests and her ability to communicate with an audience verbally as well as musically. In fact a quick perusal of Rachel’s web site will lead the interested to some of her more pedagogical efforts featuring scores of some of these lesser known masterpieces.
And, oh yes, there are large orchestral duties here too. The wonderful Royal Scottish National Orchestra is led by the rising star conductor/composer Teddy Abrams who recently took over leadership of another supporter of new and/or neglected musics, the venerable Louisville Orchestra. Founded in 1937 they have carried the torch for new music and celebrated the inclusion of all genders and ethnicities in their musical vision, an embodiment of the very intent of the phrase, “E Pluribus Unum” especially in this musical context.
All in all a great disc which is unlikely to duplicate anything in your collection but one to which you will doubtless return for sheer entertainment and joy.
Pauline Kim Harris is a marvelously accomplished violinist. Her resume includes her work as composer as well as performer. At first glance this disc would seem to be an unusual choice for a solo debut but a quick look at her discography reveals that we have here a musician who has chosen experimental and potentially cutting edge music to define her work. This album is a collaboration with another musician, Spencer Topel, who has chosen a similarly difficult and complex challenge to define his career.
I have chosen for the scope of this review to forego attempts at analyzing these nascent artists and their uniquely defined personas as musicians and have simply provided links to their respective websites. What I feel obligated to do however is look at the nature of this genre of this music. Is it ambient? Is it drone? Is it transcription? And who is the intended audience? Musicians? Listeners sitting in a seat in a concert hall? Background music a la Eno’s Music for Airports? How will this disc be used?
One clue as to this music’s intended purpose is the recording label itself. Sono Luminus, a new music label defined largely by a concern with producing the finest sound via digital signal processing. This independent classical label has sent me several CDs which are reviewed (most favorably) elsewhere in these pages. One of the things that is notable about this label is the intelligent choice of programming. Rather than settle simply for quality sound alone they seem to focus their repertoirial radar on new and/or unusual music which is not being heard on other labels. Their choices have been intelligent in the past.
OK, now to the disc. There are but two pieces here. One is a sort of deconstruction of the Chaconne from Bach’s solo violin partita (BWV 1004). This much lauded masterpiece has received a great deal of attention and composers such as Feruccio Busoni have done transcriptions of the work. Another recent recording (reviewed here) features a just intonation version of the work. I’m not sure what Bach would have thought of either of these but the fact is that this is a work very much representative of western music in the high baroque era and one which endures in performances to this day.
The sound, of course, is wonderful. The range and the clarity of the recording beg to be heard on the highest quality sound system the listener can commandeer. It is beautiful. It is in a tonal idiom. But what volume is needed? Well that depends on your listening context. For the purpose of this review I listened on my factory sound system in my 2015 Toyota RAV 4. Not the highest end of audio reproduction but one which did allow me to perceive the quality of the recording.
So I listened at a volume which allowed the music to be heard above road and traffic noise. I wondered if I would have appreciated this from an audience seat. Hmm, not sure. Then the more ambient notion suggested itself to me. Maybe this could be music that is played in the foyer of a concert hall before the concert and during intermissions (regardless of the content of the actual concert to be heard). Intriguing idea but I know of no one willing to consider this notion in any sizable venue.
I listened to the second track, a “reimagining” of Deo Gratias by renaissance composer Johannes Ockeghem. Same thoughts…dedicated listener in a chair, music to modify a sonic space. Both tracks are listed as “Composed by Pauline Kim Harris and Spencer Topel.” So the artists think of these as their compositions. Fine by me. The long standing and ongoing tradition of working with older music and recasting it by changing its instrumentation, writing variations, changing its performance context, etc. is well known and has been put to good use in any number of subsequently respected musical compositions.
So in the end I remain undecided as to the intent (other than experimentalism) of these pieces and will leave my readers with the suggestion that they simply listen and utilize the music as it fits your own life. It is certainly beautiful but it is not dramatic or assertive, rather it almost subsists inviting listeners to contemplate and choose to do more deeply or to simply allow the music to exist as a pleasing sound object (the listener indeed may be the “Heroine” of the title). Either way this disc provides much more than what initially meets the ear. And that would seem to be a significant artistic achievement.